ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.

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Table 4 gives the percent crystallinity and cellulose crystallite size of the different types of cotton fibers compared with bleached cotton. Consideration of the phenomena of water binding to cellulosic fiber, from crystalline to fibrillar state, crystalline cellulose crsytallites of 36 cellulose chains or more has been characterized as low water binding There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not possible.

A peak width at half maximum height of 1.

Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn 2009)

This is likely as well as it has previously been shown that the density of interfacial water strongly bound water on cellulose is increased when it is perturbed. The ATSM method uses a sample of fabric that is 76 mm wide and cut to a length that equals 5. Future studies will focus on specific functional applications for incontinence qstm and wound care nonwovens.

The cotton ginning by-products are used in numerous applications [ 4 – 9 ]. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. These test methods cover procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned greige cotton lint separately blended with d111 noils and ginning motes at Two different measures of moisture uptake are also reported.

The crystallinity index for each sample is as high as can be expected [ 20 ] for cotton and reflects nearly complete crystallinity. This study demonstrates awtm versatility of nonwoven greige cotton when combined with cotton by-products as putative economical substitutes for synthetic fibers in absorbent applications. Please first log in with a verified email before subscribing to alerts. The cellulose-water interactions have been discussed in light of these findings.


The blended nonwoven materials possess absorbent properties characterized by similar qstm uptake 7. Figure 1 diagrams the process of hydroentanglement.

ASTM D – 01 Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn )

The values given in parentheses are for information only and may be approximate. This standard is not included in any packages. Depending on the end-use application, a hydroentangled nonwoven fabric made by using a blend of cotton mote fibers and greige bleach-less cleaned cotton lint gave optimal swelling and reasonably good moisture uptake.

The differences between KFT and Kett are due, in part, to the different nature of the two methods. Also shown is a calculated pattern for the modified crystal structure of Nishiyama et al. UltraClean cotton, which is a form of greige cotton [ 2 ], was separately combined with the cotton gin motes and comber noils, whereupon the blends were carded, crosslapped, and subjected to light needle punching prior to their separate hydroentanglement at 50 bar wet-out water pressure and bar hydroentangling water pressure.

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The gin motes have lower density and higher surface area and thus promote hydrophilic transport of water in the fabric. First chapter Depolymerization and Activation of Lignin: From this state, further water sorption then assumes the character of a capillary-like condensation and has been characterized as free water, i. The system is equipped with one low water pressure jet head that wets the incoming feed web asstm on its top face, while two high water pressure jet heads alternatively impact the wetted substrate on either face.

The nonwoven hydroentanglement of greige cotton lint with cotton gin motes and comber noils blends was analyzed for fiber surface polarity, swelling, and absorbance to assess properties with potential astn in absorbent nonwovens.

Cotton fiber is naturally renewable astk biodegradable.

Bound versus free water and crystallite size in cotton blends It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here. Proceed to Checkout Continue Shopping. A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T. December 4th Reviewed: This sample is provided for information and not comparison due to ast higher density.


Cellulose-water binding considerations The binding of water to cotton has been characterized in three states, including 1 strongly bound or nonfreezing water, 2 anisotropically constrained or perturbed water, and 3 unperturbed water, or water undergoing isotropic motion The fluid dynamics of the electrochemical double-layer model enables measurement of functional properties similar to those that occur at the solid-liquid interface of incontinence materials [ 12 ].

The water from the cotton sample from the vial is released and driven into the titration cell from which the percentage of moisture present d117 calculated from the volume of reagent consumed. d1117

ASTM D1117

The calculated X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Figure 3. Thus, the hydroentanglement process promotes the disruption of the fiber xstm that retains some wax and pectin while exposing cellulose fibrils and microfibrils to water penetration. X-ray diffraction patterns of the three different cotton constituents displayed similar crystalline cellulose compositions. Hydroentangled fabrics of different fiber blends. In addition, as discussed below, the smaller cellulose crystallite size of the gin motes is consistent with this and plays a role at a molecular level in the increased water absorption capacity observed in the cotton by-product nonwovens.


The potential to use greige cotton by-products as an economical source for absorbent nonwoven blends is explored. The electrokinetic data presented in Figure 2 includes samples of the cotton blends investigated in this study.

Also, note that the KFT f1117 content Table 3 for polyester is 0. The needle-punched webs of the different fiber blends were uniformly hydroentangled using a Fleissner MiniJet system Figure 1.

Already Subscribed to this document. The three constituent cotton fibers employed in the nonwovens were evaluated for their relative cellulosic crystallinity in relation to their moisture uptake properties.

Built by scientists, for scientists. Most of the cotton used astn present in absorbent nonwovens is bleached cotton, including lint, gin motes, linters, comber noils, and the so-called other cotton textile processing wastes.