Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. below zero cinco graus abaixo zero; 2 (EDUC) diploma m, título académico; delinquência juvenil. delinquent n adj delinquente m,f. delirious adj delirante;. Delinquência e criminalidade recenseadas dos jovens em Portugal: PM Ferreira, L Garcia, J Vala. 7, Noisy Data Set Identification. LPF Garcia.

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An exploratory study from a sample of institutionalized young offenders. Severe antisocial behaviour in adolescence is a matter of concern in every society, especially when it translates in juvenile delinquency that persists through adulthood. In this study, we asked a sample of institutionalized male juvenile offenders between 14 and 20 years old to fill several self-report measures to understand young delinquents and their social and academic conditions, behaviour, and individual dispositions.

Results reveal peculiarities on academic achievement, socioeconomic status and family size. Analysis confirmed the role of personality, self-concept, self-control and family environment on antisocial scores, especially psychoticism, neuroticism, social conformity, and family environment.

Different behavioural subtypes reflect differences in psychoticism, antisocial behaviour and family environment. However, there were no correlations between antisocial tendency and age, school year or family size. Our paper contributes to existing knowledge that supports intervention approaches, stressing that, unlike age, school year or family size, different types of behaviour may require differentiated interventions.

Antisocial behaviour, Adolescence, Delinquency. Hence, by definition, its study carries an immeasurable complexity due to the variability in antisocial manifestations, individuals, and trajectories. Such complex and heterogeneous nature, especially in adolescence, is well acknowledged in literature regarding this issue, and many theories have attempted to describe and explain the antisocial phenomenon, its origins, determinants, trajectories, manifestations, degrees of severity, and persistence mechanisms.

The author postulates the existence of two types of antisocial behaviour: LCP, on the contrary, is rarer, more severe and persistent across the lifespan. From this perspective, LCP antisocial individuals are somehow trapped by their circumstances, that is, at first by their characteristics and, later, by their contexts. In fact, little opportunity is available for this group of individuals to learn prosocial alternatives to their behaviours: A different, but equally important, framework for understanding adolescent antisocial behaviour is suggested by Tremblayplacing the focus on behavioural subtypes, rather than on age-of-onset.

According to this author, diverse types of antisocial behaviour entail different developmental trajectories as different resources and characteristics are involved in distinct types of antisocial behaviour. In fact, the frequency of overt behaviours like physical aggression generally decreases with age, while the frequency of covert behaviours such as rule breaking tends to increase. There are several individual and contextual factors that have been mentioned to contribute to increasing the severity of antisocial behaviour to the point where it is translated into long-term delinquency.

Farrington argues that delinquency is an element of a bigger syndrome of antisocial behaviour that tends to be persistent and relatively stable.

Among others, the author refers to impulsivity, low intelligence or poor school performancepoor parental rearing practices, antisocial family, and poverty as factors involved in the development of delinquency. Yet, the effect of socioeconomic conditions on antisocial behaviours may not be direct but mediated by other living conditions, such as family functioning Rutter et al. Hence, family structure factors single parenting, divorce, family dimension, etc.

In the scope of social functioning, self-concept is regarded both as risk factor and protective factor. Despite the uncertainties around this matter, one aspect appears to be consensual: In this sense, analysis regarding different components of self-concept appear to be particularly, since research has been pointing out peculiarities when it comes to physical and social components of self-concept in antisocial adolescents Salmivalli, ; Torregrosa et al.

In addition, social skills and antisocial behaviour have an important impact on school achievement. In this paper we address individual dispositions and perceptions with focus on personality, self-concept, social skills and family environment. With this study we intend to better understand a sample of institutionalized delinquent boys, namely their behavioural manifestations, personality, self-concept, social skills, and perceived family environment.

Social skills, self-concept and perception of family environment are negatively correlated with antisocial behaviour. Antisocial tendency and individual dispositions are related with age, school year and family size. Juvenile delinquents with different behavioural subtypes present differences in antisocial behaviour scores and individual dispositions.

The sample for this study included boys with a history of delinquency institutionalized in five juvenile detention centres in different Portuguese regions, originally coming from all the country and living in urban areas mostly greater Lisbon and Porto. Participants were predominantly of low socioeconomic status In terms of education, participants were attending professional and technical courses corresponding from the 5 th to the 9 th grade Almost half of our sample The studied variables were measured through self-report questionnaires, selected based on their psychometric characteristics, filling conditions collectively and anonymouslyand accessibility for individuals with basic reading skills.

Each item could be answered according to its frequency and its considered importance. We used the answers regarding frequency since those are the only allowing quantitative analysis. After each juvenile detention centre agreed to collaborate, youths were asked to provide their informed and voluntary collaboration, being assured of the confidentiality and anonymity of their answers.


The protocol was applied collectively and anonymously in two sessions. A considerable percentage of our sample came from low socioeconomic status All individuals were still at basic school levels, with almost half of the sample attending classes corresponding to the Portuguese 2 nd cycle of basic school corresponding, on average, to ages To test the first three hypothesis, we performed Pearson correlations, as shown in Table 2to check for relations between antisocial behaviour, individual dispositions, age, school year, and family size.

Hypothesis concerning personality, self-concept, social skills and family environment factors were generally confirmed with psychoticism.

The hypothesis regarding the relation between antisocial tendency and age, school year and family size were refuted. Results only show significant but modest correlations between school year and psychoticism.

Taking into consideration these results, we tested a multiple regression model in order to verify, in all variables correlated with antisocial behaviour, those that would stand out as its predictors. To test for differences according to behavioural subtypes, we performed Academiica ANOVA that revealed significant differences between groups in antisocial behaviour, psychoticism, behavioural adjustment and family environment, as Table 4 demonstrates.

This research intended to study a challenging phenomenon and sample, composed of a group of institutionalized delinquent boys that have committed an offense before reaching the legal age to be trialled in adult courts.

We hypothesized that personality, social skills, self-concept and perception of family environment were correlated with antisocial behaviour. We also anticipated that antisocial behaviour and individual dispositions were related with age, school year and family size and that juvenile delinquents with different behavioural subtypes would present differences in antisocial behaviour scores and individual dispositions.

The majority of boys whose behaviour justified an institutionalization came from disadvantaged social contexts, suggesting, in line with previous research Farrington, ; Moffitt,that low socioeconomic status may place individuals at higher risk for antisocial conducts. This confirms the need to direct our preventive efforts to youngsters living in disadvantaged social and economic contexts where boys are more vulnerable to antisocial behaviours.

Also noteworthy is the fact that a considerable amount of individuals in our sample had delinquncia or more siblings, which is highly acadrmica average for the Portuguese population.

Luís Paulo Faina Garcia – Citas de Google Académico

In fact, although there is no official data on the number of siblings of Portuguese adolescents, according to the population census, the fertility rate was 1. This reality in Portugal is in line with findings from the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development indicating a higher likelihood of convicted delinquents to have lived in poorer and larger families Farrington, Likewise, the fact that all boys over 15 years of age were still in basic school levels when it is expected that, at 15, Portuguese students are attending the first year of secondary education indicates a prior unsuccessful academic trajectory with several retentions, since, in juvenile detention centres, students have mandatory classes according to their school level at the moment of institutionalization.

It is possible that, as postulated by Moffittthese individuals have developmental and cognitive disadvantages that, combined with environmental disadvantages such as those found in this study, may explain, at least partially, such academic failure. The Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has not only identified low intelligence and poor school performance as some of the factors involved in the development of delinquency, but has also found that these dimensions may help to predict delinquency in adulthood Farrington, The same variables were also found to predict antisocial scores, together with family environment, that was negatively correlated with antisocial behaviour.

Thus, effective interventions should include families, capacitating their members to create positive, harmonious relationships, coherent management practices and to stimulate personal growth, and prosocial interactions.

We found a significant correlation between antisocial behaviour and self-control, but the same did not occur with empathy. These results highlight the particular relevance of a tendency for impulsivity, aggressiveness, emotional instability or tension in antisocial behaviours.

Results on behavioural and global self-concept suggest that delinquent boys with higher antisocial scores perceive themselves as less behaviourally adjusted and in a more negative perspective.

TRAGTENBERG, Maurício. A Delinquência Acadêmica

In other words, they appear to acknowledge the maladjustment of their behaviours, suggesting a cognitive understanding of social rules, but do not show sensitivity to such rules as illustrated by results on the lie scale — negatively correlated with antisocial behaviourpossibly because they have not internalized them adequately. As the Cambridge Study for Delinquent Development Farrington, suggests, the occurrence of frequent offenses depend on the interaction between the individual who has a certain degree of antisocial tendency and the social environment, as well as on a process of decision-making based on opportunities for deviancy: On the contrary, the same study suggests the existence of inhibiting factors, that is, if socially learned attitudes and beliefs are internalized, antisocial tendencies can be reduced.


In fact, when parents promote and value legal norms and adequately supervise their children, practicing a discipline oriented by affection, children will understand that delinquency is wrong. However, impulsivity, neurological dysfunctions and low intelligence may affect the development of such internal beliefs, even when adequate environments are provided.

In addition, also global self-concept was negatively correlated with antisocial behaviour which indicates, as expected, that individuals may perceive themselves more negatively due to their predispositions to negatively relate with the surrounding environment.

Results point out to some differences between individuals who committed offenses of different natures. Such differences suggest that individuals convicted due to both behavioural subtypes may be more vulnerable in terms of their individual conditions poorer family environment, self-concept and higher psychoticism and may have a higher antisocial tendency when compared to those convicted due to one subtype of antisocial behaviour.

In fact, results indicate that juvenile delinquents manifesting both overt and covert forms of antisocial behaviour may have fewer resources to cope with their circumstances when compared to other young offenders, and therefore, may be more vulnerable to follow a more persistent and severe deviant delinquenxia. When compared delihquencia overt behaviours, individuals who engage solely in covert behaviours appear to be more vulnerable in terms of impulsivity, toughness and egocentrism, behavioural self-concept, and family environment.

It may be the case that, due to the different characteristics of each behavioural subtype, individuals who exclusively engage in serious covert behaviours may exhibit higher levels of defiance, general disregard for rules and hiding from authority figures.

As Tremblayp. In other words, covert delinnquencia, by nature, require higher levels of scheming, which is may be associated with higher psychoticism, poorer behavioural self-concept delinquencoa more negative family environments.

The question that remains unanswered is: Do individual dispositions make an individual more likely to engage in covert behaviours or is it that engaging in covert antisocial behaviour makes individuals more vulnerable?


Indeed, differences between groups show us that adolescents convicted due to covert and overt behaviour may them more resistant to change when compared to those who were convicted due to one specific type of behaviour the same occurs when we compare those who were convicted due to covert behaviour in comparison with overt behaviour. There were no correlations between antisocial behaviour or individual dispositions and age or family size. Regarding school year, only psychoticism and academic self-concept showed significant, but modest correlations.

This may be explained by the fact that psychoticism is a trait related to impulsivity a characteristic acqdemica contributes negatively to academic achievement and by the fact that academic failure highly contributes to poorer academic self-concept. Such results lead to the conclusion that this particular population academcia be more homogeneous in terms of antisocial behaviour and individual dispositions than we could anticipate.

In fact, it appears that there are important vulnerabilities concerning social, familial, and personal domains that cross the studied sample, regardless of their age, school year, and family size.

This study is not without acadeemica. Our sample is relatively small and occasional since we dekinquencia to depend on the collaboration of all the visited institutions and on voluntary participation from individuals. Moreover, the fact that participants were in a closed environment with significant restraint, away from their usual living environment may have had some unaccounted influence delinquenia the xcademica.

Due to the limited number of girls in juvenile detention centres and to the unavailability of institutions that include female sectors, our sample only included boys, leaving the important gender factor aside.

Finally, it would have been preferable to relinquencia our analysis on other measures besides self-report measures. However, due to the peculiarities of our sample e. Nevertheless, we believe that this study has great value for understanding such a challenging population, highlighting the value of personal dispositions and individual perceptions on the explanation of adolescent antisocial behaviours. Hence, due to its broad scope considering multiple sets of variables independently and taken togetherour results deepen our knowledge of the variables in delnquencia in severe and persistent adolescent antisocial behaviour.

We were able to describe a particular sample of adolescents in terms of their personal, social and family conditions, highlighting several important vulnerabilities in all the three aspects of their lives and according to behavioural manifestations.

We recognize the importance of differentiated interventions according to behavioural subtypes and suggest that, in future studies with these populations, research focuses on studying large datasets with both male and female offenders with longitudinal designs, to accompany and study their trajectories as well as the variables highlighted in this study. We also caademica that using qualitative data e. Manual for the youth self-report and profile. University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.